|JKMRS Volume 24, No 4, pp 104, NMR-based Metabolomic Responses...|
|2020년 12월 20일 / 조회수: 133|
NMR-based Metabolomic Responses of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)
by Fipronil Exposure
Lee, Sangah Oh, Seonghye Kim, Wonho Lee, Juyoung Choi, Hani Lee, Yujin Lee,
Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for
Received October 15, 2020; Revised December 11, 2020; Accepted December 11, 2020
Abstract Fipronil, the phenylpyrazole insecticide, is effective and used in various fields. Especially, fipronil was reliable because it was known to be specific on invertebrate animals than vertebrate animals including mammals. However, fipronil had potential risks that affect vertebrate animals as it blocks the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors that also exists in vertebrates as well as invertebrates. Therefore, it was necessary that harmful effects of fipronil on vertebrates are clarified. For this purpose, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used on behalf of vertebrate animals in present study. The zebrafish were exposed to 5 µg/L, 25 µg/L, and 50 µg/L of fipronil during 12, 24 and 72 hours. To closely observe toxic process, 12 hours and 24 hours of additional time point were set in the exposure test.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics is an approach to detect metabolic changes in organism resulted from external stimuli. In this study, NMR-based metabolomics showed the metabolic changes in zebrafish caused by fipronil exposure. Metabolic analysis revealed that fipronil interfered with energy metabolism and decreased the antioxidant ability in zebrafish. Antioxidant ability decline was remarkable at high exposure concentration. In addition, metabolic analysis results over time suggested that reactions for alleviating the excessive nerve excitation occurred in zebrafish after fipronil exposure. Through this study, it was elucidated that the adverse effects of fipronil on vertebrate animals are evident. The risk of fipronil on vertebrates can be no longer ignored. Moreover, this study has a meaning of practically necessary research for organism by examining the effects of fipronil at low concentrations existed in real environment.
Keywords High resolution-magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, metabolomics, Danio rerio, Fipronil